Sunday, May 17, 2020

Essay on Nursing Shortage; Recruitment and Retention

The U.S. nursing shortage had been a serious issue for quite sometime now and continues to escalate. As the nursing workforce continues to age, nurses leave the profession faster than they can be replaced and the crisis continues to grow. Nurses are leaving for different reasons. What is being done to solve the nursing shortage here in the United States? Nursing recruitment and retention is one of many solutions that can alleviate this problem. Nurses are privileged to belong to a profession that commands a level of credibility and respect that few others in health care or any other field can claim. According to the Gallup Organizations 2005 annual poll on professional honesty and ethical standards ranked nurses number one. With one†¦show more content†¦This legislation has a great impact for me as a nurse. The place where I work provides educational incentives that include tuition reimbursement for nurses who wanted to continue their education. They have education opportuni ties given to nursing assistants who wants to go back to school to get their license as a registered nurse or licensed vocational nurse, an ADN nursing graduate who wants to advance their education and go for the BSN, and BSN graduates who want to go for their Masters degree and many more. They also provide training programs for nurses such as lengthy orientation programs and preceptorships for new nursing graduates and new hires that require more intense orientation. There are legal responsibilities that we have as professional nurses. Because of the nursing shortage, one of the major issues of concern is staffing. Inappropriate staffing can threaten patients safety. Inadequate staffing can also affect the nurses health,Show MoreRelatedCritical Appraisal Of The Literature Essay1339 Words   |  6 PagesMethods The databases of EBSCOhost, Google Scholar, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature with full text were used to identify evidence-based research concerning the issue of nurse faculty shortage and strategies for dealing with the problem. Identifying keywords selected for the search were nurse faculty shortage, nurse faculty, nurse faculty shortage solutions, and global nurse faculty shortage. Published articles chosen for review fell between 2010 and 2015. Sixty articlesRead MoreRecruitment And Retention Of Nurses1404 Words   |  6 PagesRecruitment and Retention in Nursing As the forthcoming nursing shortage threatens the United States, organizations must be knowledgeable in the recruitment and retention of nurses. The challenge facing health care organizations will be to retain sufficient numbers of nurses to provide safe, efficient, quality of care to patients. Also, organizations will look to recruit and attract quality nurses to fill vacancies left open by staff who left the profession due to burning out. Turnover in NursingRead MoreEssay on Literature Review: Nurse Retention 1377 Words   |  6 PagesWith the ongoing changes in the healthcare field, nursing workforce retention presents itself as one of the greatest challenges facing healthcare systems today. According to the American Nursing Association, nursing turnover is a multi-faceted issue which impacts the financial stability of the facility, the quality of patient care and has a direct affect on the other members of the nursing staff (ANA, 2014). The cost to replace a nurse in a heal thcare facility ranges between $62,100 to $67,100 (ANARead MoreNursing Shortage For Many Years860 Words   |  4 PagesThe Nursing Profession has been experiencing shortages for many years. The pattern seems to be repetitive, high demand for nurses followed by phases of downsizing with a surplus of nurses. The earlier years of the nursing shortage was short compared to today’s current nursing shortage. The nursing shortage exist globally and in all nursing areas. There are several factors that are the cause of the nursing shortage of today as well in years past. The nursing shortage began in the 1940’s duringRead MoreSample Resume : Nurse Retention Strategies883 Words   |  4 Pages Leadership Paper Nurse Retention Strategies in a Changing World Suzanne O’Leary East Tennessee State University NRSE: 4060 Transition to Professional Practice November 2, 2015 Identification The never ending nurse shortage looms constantly as a reminder in the healthcare setting that with the increase of human population, superior medical technology, major changes to the nation’s medical healthcare, that this nursing shortage is predicted to worsen. The past four years have seen a steadyRead MoreThe Factors Affecting The Work Environment On Health Worker Shortages And Improving Access And Quality Of Health Services1347 Words   |  6 Pagespush factors for retention (Burns, Bradley and Weiner, 2012, pg.445). The factors that contribute to forcing workers to leave the public sector include: workload and staff shortages are contributing to burnout, high absenteeism, stress, depression, low morale, and de-motivation (Burns, Bradley and Weiner, 2012, pg.445). It is also shown that poor working conditions also contributes to preventing staff morale and motivation and it also contributes directly to recruitment and retention (Burns, BradleyRead MoreThe Seeds Of Nursing Should Be Planted Within The Heads, Hearts And Minds Of Youth Essay1340 Words   |  6 PagesAction Steps The seeds of nursing must be planted in the heads, hearts and minds of youth. Seeing one’s self as a nurse, or a reflection of who you are in a nurse role, is important as children develop ideas about what they want to be when they grow up. To impact the rural nursing shortage long term, more young people must consider a career in nursing, especially those from rural settings. In order to influence those decisions, children must see themselves as nurses, which means men, women, NativeRead MoreReasons For Nurse Shortage Essay1429 Words   |  6 PagesNursing Shortage It is likely that most people have heard about the nursing shortage for years now, and perhaps they believe it’s been fixed. However, the nursing profession is experiencing a reoccurring deficiency. According to Brian Hansen, (2002), there was a nation wide shortage in 2001 of 126,000 full-time registered nurses, but the shortage will surge to 808,000 by 2020 if something isnt done. This pattern is a persisting cycle of high vacancies followed by layoffs and a high over supply ofRead MoreA Study on Recruitment and Job Analysis for Nurses1120 Words   |  4 PagesRecruitment and Job Analysis for Nurses: The recruitment of nurses has become a common characteristic in the modern health care industry since hospice homes, hospitals, medical clinics, and other healthcare facilities are usually looking for nurses with diverse skills. The need for qualified and competent nurses with a broad range of skills is also fueled by the fact that other institutions like schools, prisons, and even the military needs these professionals. However, the ability of these facilitiesRead MoreNursing Practice and Its Challenges642 Words   |  3 PagesIntroduction Over the recent years, nursing has faced several challenges and emerging issues that affect the health welfare of the society at large. Despite efforts being set to tackle the challenges, still the nursing industry proofs, to be difficult to changes laid. Example of challenges facing nursing includes; nurses etiquette while in work, commitment to their work, commitment to their profession as nurses, meeting patients expectations, shortage of nurses and commitment to patients.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Oral Commentary on The Odyssey Essay - 802 Words

This passage is told as a flashback, as Odysseus sits in the palace of the Phaeacians telling the story of his wanderings. Odysseus reluctantly tells his story after King Alcinou notices his weeping during a minstrel, which was about the fall of Troy. So in answer to the King, Odysseus reveals his identity, background and adventures: from Troy, the winds sweep him and his men to Ismarus, city of the Cicones. The men plunder the land and, carried away by greed, refuses to leave until the Cicones turn on them and attack. Odysseus and his crew finally escape, having lost six men per ship. The point of view changes from third person to first person as Odysseus narrates Books 9–12. These books thus give background not only to Odysseus’s†¦show more content†¦Homer also uses cacophony to describe this losing fight: ...my doomed companions and me. They fought a pitched battle by the swift ships and exchanged volleys of bronzed spears (9.53-54). By combining plosive consonants (doomed, pitched battle, etc.), fricatives (fought, volleys) and sibilants (swift ships, spears), Homer successfully expresses the Cicones as stronger, better and well-trained fighters. Another example of cacophony is when the Achaeans continue to battle with the pitiless sea : Our ships pitched and plunged in the wind, and the force of the gusts tore their sails to shreds and tatters (9.71-72). The heavy concentration of plosive consonants and sibilants, effectively reflect the never-ending struggles of the journey home. Furthermore, repetition of the consonant p, as in pitched and plunged, creates an unpleasant sound which again emphasizes on the violent waters and winds. The progression of the battle is shown in the different positions of the sun. A rising sun symbolizes life and hope, as the early morning was the only time Odysseus and his men held their grounds in the battle. However, as the sun begins to drop, the slightest hope is gone, and the Cicones gains the upper hand and end their revenge. Another symbol found in this passage is the white sail being hauled up after Odysseus has rested for 2 days (9. 77). Not only does the colour white represent peace after the battle has ended. But it also symbolizes a start of a new adventureShow MoreRelatedThe Penelopiad Analysis958 Words   |  4 Pagesnovel ‘The Odyssey’ . In an interview, Atwood explained her beliefs on the gender roles surround The Odyssey thus incorporating this as well as other materials into ‘The Penelopiad’ by stating: â€Å"There is an argument that has been made quite thoroughly that The Iliad and The Odyssey were written by two different people, and that the person who wrote The Odyssey was a woman.’ Atwood then carries on to explain her argument stating how several people have made the argument of how ‘The Odyssey’ was writtenRead MoreIn What Ways Is the Telemachy Important to the Odyssey as a Whole1553 Words   |  7 PagesIn what ways is the Telemachy important to the Odyssey as a whole? What would the poem lose if these first four books were removed? Homer’s the Odyssey is the epic tale of Odysseus’ return home from the battle of Troy, yet we do not truly get to the hero in action until after we are drawn through the story of his son life in the absence of his father in Ithaka. In the first four books, we see how Telemachos, Odysseus’ son, matures and through his eyes Homer shows us the unrest and troubles ofRead More The Portrayal of Women in Homers Odyssey Essay1817 Words   |  8 PagesDoes Homer exhibit gender bias in the Odyssey?   Is the nature of woman as depicted in the Odyssey in any way revealing? Upon examining the text of the Odyssey for differential treatment on men and women, it becomes necessary to distinguish between three possible conclusions.   One, differences in treatment reflect the underlying Homeric thesis that   women are different but equal in nature,   Two, different treatment   of men and women in the text reflect a thesis that women are different and unequalRead MoreHi storical And Textual Data Of The Mesopotamian Religion1973 Words   |  8 Pagesfuture. In the Greek religion in the middle of the ninth century B.C.E. two of the earliest and greatest works of Greek literature were composed which are the Iliad and Odyssey. These two magnificent epic poems are about the gods and heroes of Greece which are attributed to a blind poet by the name of Homer. The Iliad and Odyssey are our major sources of information about the public or state religion of the Homeric age. From what is said in them, all the important acts were determined by the godsRead More Buy Essay Online: Odysseus’ Struggle Against the Sea in Homers Odyssey3505 Words   |  15 PagesOdysseus’ Struggle Against the Sea in Homers Odyssey  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The Greek’s conception of the universe was anchored in the ever presence of the sea and they imagined the farthest limits of the earth to be a wide expanse of water. While enabling them to be a sea-faring people, the ocean also forced them to face the constant threat of becoming shipwrecked and dying at sea. In face of the threat posed by the sea, the Greeks sought to demonstrate that the forces of nature must be endured by man, andRead MoreThe Complex Layers Within the Little Mermaid1206 Words   |  5 PagesFairy tales convey political, moral, and social lessons through characters, relationships and setting. They originate from an oral tradition passed down from generation to generation often in a varied form, drawing inspiration from diverse sources such as the Bible and mythology. As societies gained access to the printed word, fairy tales became less changeable and tended to focus on characters who were transitioning from childhood to adulthood (Abler). Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm became renowned forRead MoreHistory of the Development of the Short Story.3660 Words   |  15 Pagesartistic form and reasoning. As a result, definitions of the short story based upon length splinter even more when the writing process is taken into consideration.[41] Short stories date back to oral story-telling traditions which originally produced epics such as Homers Iliad and Odyssey. Oral narratives were often told in the form of rhyming or rhythmic verse, often including recurring sections or, in the case of Homer, Homeric epithets. Such stylistic devices often acted as mnemonics forRead MoreEssay on The Odyssey21353 Words   |  86 PagesThe Odyssey Set in ancient Greece, The Odyssey is about the hero Odysseus long-awaited return from the Trojan War to his homeland, Ithaca, after ten years of wandering. The current action of The Odyssey occupies the last six weeks of the ten years, and the narrative includes many places - Olympus, Ithaca, Pylos, Pherae, Sparta, Ogygia, and Scheria. In Books 9-12, Odysseus narrates the story of his travels in the years after the fall of Troy, and this narrative includes other far-flungRead MoreHow to Write a Research Paper11497 Words   |  46 PagesAbove all, however, strive for accuracy, not only in copying words for direct quotation, but also in summarizing and paraphrasing an author s ideas. Careful note taking will help you avoid the problem of plagiarism. #3: The commentary Include one or two sentences of commentary on each note card to explain why you chose the passage. The purpose of providing a note to yourself or a comment is to justify why and how you intend to use the passage in your paper. #4: The outline reference / slug Read MoreArt as an Embodied Imagination22095 Words   |  89 Pagesacoustic sensitivity and virtual body explorations, we drew on the insights of three participants—David, Tom, and Danny—all graduate students in the humanities and social sciences, who saw both the advantages and disadvantages of using recorded commentaries during the museum visit. Audio technologies enable virtual body explorations for viewing art because they disrupt traditional ways of seeing it (Fisher 1997). Furthermore, the perpetually incomplete representation of sound is reinforced by the

Law and Legal Instrumentalism free essay sample

Law, a set of coherent rules and values within a society, is a human process. As such, it is crucial to approach its application within society in a pragmatic and realistic sense rather than a formal one, which views law as a set of mechanical and abstract principles. A legal realist approach on law takes into account extra-legal factors which help shape how law is used within a social context. This approach does not view the discipline of law as a literal set of principles to be formally detected and applied, but recognizes that the interpretation of law by legal actors is manipulated by situational factors. BrianTamanaha in Law as a Means to an End: Threat to the Rule of Law examines how law, originally understood as an â€Å"instrumental to serve the social good†, is now just a mere instrument to further the goals and agendas of those who have access in its use (Tamanaha, 4). In essence, the notion of a common â€Å"social good† is no longer a qualifiable condition of law. In a complex, multi-faceted society, it is optimistic to presume that there is a true identifiable social good. Thus, lawyers, legislatures, judges and other legal actors are capable of using law to further their personal or collective political, social and economic interests. Tamanaha examines the ways in which legal actors, specifically cause litigants and judges, instrumentally exercise law. Thus, the term instrumentalism, a form of legal realism, is a pragmatic method which stems away from a formal application of law by critically examining cause litigation and judicial activism. Although law may be used as a mechanism to achieve a certain outcome, it is not used lawlessly and without merit as lawyers are advocating for a broad social cause and judges use law based on the merits of the constitution, given the benefit of time and postulated reason of their decision making. Brown, a case regarding segregation within the United States emerged with lawyers stirring up lawsuits by informing African American citizens of their legal rights (Tamanaha 159). The process of instigating litigation was previously prohibited in common law practice; it was not professionally ethical for lawyers to set lawsuits in motion. However, it became increasingly common for lawyers to achieve change in public policy and legislation by fighting for a specific cause within the judicial arena. This ethod was forward-looking in that the courts became a battle field for interest groups seeking remedial change; the decision of the law was not necessarily to compensate for any harm inflicted in the past, but to change the policy in the future. This expansion from the traditional bilateral litigation no longer was to award the affected parties with compensation, but became a method to attain a reformative decree (Tamanaha 161). Eventually, cause litigation was an encouraged means to a dvance societal goals, in the sectors of environment protection, political reform and mental health, to name a few (Tamanaha 160). Although such issues of public policy appear to benefit society as a whole, the intent of the cause lawyers who instigate such legal actions is questionable to Tamanaha. The lawyers in these situations are no longer amoral technicians of law, but individuals who seek their own ideological implementation (Tamanaha 156). The cause which lawyers strive towards becomes the primary concern, whereas the clients themselves are secondary, fulfilling the standing requirement before the court (Tamanaha 156). This can be very detrimental to the clients because they may not be aware of the consequences of their legal actions. For instance, Baehr v. Lewin, 1993 was a successful lawsuit brought forth to legalize same-sex marriage in Hawaii. Although the litigants won, the ultimate consequence was detrimental; following it was a series of amendments nation-wide which prohibited same-sex marriage (Tamanaha 167). The battlefield within the court became not a place to determine legal rights, but a remedial catalyst in public policy. Such political battles focus on adversarial ideologies rather than legal rules and merit. However, the work of cause litigants cannot be narrowly categorized as one that is purely self-serving. More often than not, cause lawyers instigate lawsuits by informing the oppressed and disadvantaged of their rights. By doing so, they use law to encourage political change to the otherwise uninformed public. These causes often grow to become social movements as it â€Å"provides the basis for a sustained series of interactions between power holders and persons successfully claiming to speak on behalf of a constituency lacking formal representation (Austin 2)†. This formal epresentation demands change from the power holders with a strong backing of social support. Often, these groups lack the resources and skills which lawyers can provide, offering their advice to enlighten the marginalized group to â€Å"initiate and nurture political mobilization† (Austin 4). The instrumental use of law by judges is immensely threatening to the judicial system and to a democratic soc iety as a whole. Judges who use law to achieve a certain outcome undermines the rule of law. The legal system requires that judges be objective arbitrators of the law. As independent bodies, it is essential that they remain impartial in their decision making and delegate based on rule, and not personal preferences (Tamanaha 227). This is a crucial aspect of the rule of law, which binds the action of the state to pre-fixed rules, placing judges equal under and before the law, just as all other subjects of society. The rule of law ensures transparency and predictability which prevents the government from ruling coercively. It is an essential component to a democratic state. However, when judges decide a cases, they may be inclined to achieve a particular result. In essence, they are using laws to achieving another end, namely one that strengthens their own ideological beliefs and interests. Whether it is a certain political philosophy or a particular social policy which they seek, arbitrarily decided cases and manipulated law enforcement defeats the characteristics of the judicial branch of the state. Because there is no particular hierarchy of values, judges are able to promote some while extinguishing others. The general terms of legal rules allows judges to focus on the consequences of their decision. Their decisions will naturally be based on their political affiliations or ideological tendencies. Consequently, it is difficult to believe that judges are truly impartial in decision making. The result of judicial activism is that private attitudes become public law (Tamanaha 234). Furthermore, the procedural process of the case takes a backwards approach; the decision is made first, then it is justified by the legal rules which judges find applicable (Tamanaha 236) Nevertheless, there is a certain form of procedure which judges are bound to. Although values are not ranked hierarchically, there are two forms of rights obtained from the constitution: specified rights and secondary rights (Bork 17). The latter is of utmost importance as it addresses the values held by the constitution, such as the right to vote or procedures in criminal processing, all which the courts need to protect (Bork 17). The former alludes to the principled rules which the original framers of the text intended to convey (Bork 17). Because constitutional law does not have a concrete theoretical premise on which adjudicators are required to base their decision making processes on, they are founded on neutral principles. That is, issues are addressed based on general principles postulated on reason to ensure that conflicting values are not lawlessly chosen over one another (Bork 2). Granted, there are adversaries in the legal principles to which judges ascribe. Therefore, it is critical for the judges to recognize that in deciding cases, they are setting legal precedent, and therefore should have a firm belief that the values being applied are done so lawfully. These beliefs are in relation to the legal system as a whole, not their personal preferences (Bork 2). Ultimately, Bork’s concern lies not with the decisions made by judges but what makes their decisions legitimate. The courts essentially work as advocates for the minority who otherwise would have no say on the issue at hand. Helping the powerless realize their rights is a form of advocacy that judges take. It is not about undermining the rule of law, but giving opportunity to access the law (Bork 3). Nevertheless, it is crucial for judges to base their decisions off of neutral principles; just as principles and values cannot be applied lawlessly, they just the same cannot be defined lawlessly (Bork 8). The critical examination of judicial review goes beyond it’s obvious implications and expositions of undermining the rule of rule. It is unfair to presume that judges are completely unreasoned in their decision making. There is a level of predictability as judges are bound to legal precedent and cannot decide cases in an tyrannical manner. Although the courts are not elected officials who are granted the power to delegitimize legislation, they are in many ways better equipped in making such decisions. For instance, the courts are distanced from political or social pressure allows them to make sound decisions in a timely matter. Elected officials tend to act on expediency and pressure when it comes to making value-based decisions (Bickel 25). Essentially, they are inclined towards one side of the issue in order to appeal to the interest of the predominate voters, as opposed to abiding to the fundamental values of law (Bickel 25). Judges on the other hand make decisions far from societal pressures, with more leeway in terms of time. This gives the courts the ability to make more calculated decisions, taking into consideration not only the fundamental values of the state but also the unforeseen implications of a decision. (Bickel 26) In dealing with the pith and substance of a case, decisions are argued to be â€Å"sober second thoughts† (Bickel 26). Ultimately, the use of law within a judicial context by judges and lawyers is not an arbitrarily unfair process. Such legal actors are bound to the values of the laws within society. Such values are premised on the rule of law, the foundational concept of a democratic society. Cause litigants are often involved in social issues and advocate for those who require a formal delegate. These cause lawyers may use law in such a way to achieve a certain outcome, but this outcome results in change in public policy to those who are otherwise be unaware of their legal rights. Moreover, although judges may have their own social desires and political preferences, they cannot easily sway towards them. Their professional duty requires them to be consciously rule-bound and rely on the precedent. Further, the basis of their decision is on neutral principles. Such principles are not vague and abstract, but stem from the precedent of previous judges in common law. Instrumentalism is pragmatic in that it recognizes that law is not a math; there is not a formula which judges rely on. However, social movements and changes through the judiciary ensures that fresh insight is continuously brought about within society, giving room for social change and progress.

Monday, April 20, 2020

Non-commissioned Officer and Respect Essay Sample free essay sample

We respect others so that they might esteem us. If you don’t demo regard. you will non be taken earnestly and other people will non be gracious to you. There are many different sorts of regard. There is regard for your parents and higher-ups which is really of import so that you might larn obeisance towards others. . Respect for one’s faith is really valuable because God gave everyone the right to liberate will and if people chose to make something that is against what others believe. people still have no right to take that off. Last but non least. regard is shown by the manner for talk. If you talk impolitely. no 1 will wish you and you will be all entirely. Respect is what makes you a good individual. demoing that you can be a function theoretical account for others around you. Your state shows the manner to a good life by being an illustration of good character. We will write a custom essay sample on Non-commissioned Officer and Respect Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page When Americans salute the flag when they are singing the national anthem. you are demoing regard to your state. If your state does non allow you be free. so how are you suppose to esteem them for what they do when they don’t? When school kids say the Pledge of Allegiance. they pledge to be good citizens for their state. Bing loyal is demoing regard to the universe around others. Respect or esteem is given to you as a mark of recognition that you have your ain sentiment in life. That is why when the United States made the first Amendment it was guaranteed you would be free to idolize. When people chose to make God’s will alternatively of theirs. they show respect for Him. God is the most of import figure in life and so people chose to honour Him. Gaining regard ever counts on the manner you act around others. If a individual comes off as disobedient and chesty. they will non be respected. If they come of as trustworthy and sort. they will be thought of as mature and good. When people blurt out disrespectful words and reject others they show immatureness. Why it is of import to esteem an Non Commissioned Officer in the United States Army and the possible consiquences and penalties that may be given. It is of import to esteem an non commissioned officer in order to maintain the balance in the wo rk topographic point. Even if its non deserved or given back to you. its still the regulations of the military to demo them the proper respects. Not demoing them regard will ensue in acquiring yourself in unecissary problem that will do yourself look bad infront of your other higher-ups. Consiquences will be given out to whom of all time disrespects or does non decently listen to a non commissioned officer. These consiquences must be obeyed and respected merely every bit much as the non commissioned officer. Further penalties will be given out to you if these are non followed to every particular item. Some people say that you should give regard to everyone. Other people say that regard should be earned. I think that regard is a two manner street. To acquire regard you have to give regard. Respect is neither a right nor a privilege. It is something that you earn over clip through your actions. though in the ground forces it is expected of all lower enlisted to esteem in what I would name the new definetion of the word with is a type of fright that is implanted into the new soldiers. Earned regard builds a stronger relationship between people. can be more specific so demanded regard. and is more stable than demanded regard. Besides. true regard must be built on experience. and therefore it is non right to merely demand it. Earned respect physiques relationship between people. When another individual earns your regard you work harder to hold that same regard returned to you. I think that regard is taught by illustration. as most good things are. The chief thing is to handle other people how you would wish to be treated and handle them how they treat you. Most people. when treated decently will handle others the same manner.

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Inference Questions in ACT Reading Strategies + Practice

Inference Questions in ACT Reading Strategies + Practice SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Questions that ask you about what infomation can be inferred from a line or series of lines on ACT Reading comprise about 15% of ACT Reading questions (based on my analysis of 4 publicly available ACTs). In order to answer these inference questions correctly, you must be able to understand what is written in the text and take one tiny, logical step beyond what is directly stated. But how are inference questions asked, and what ACT Reading strategies can you use to answer them? Keep reading to find out and prep for this important question type! feature image credit: Stevie Nicks by Trish Hamme, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. What Are Inference Questions? Inference questions on ACT reading ask you to interpret or infer the meaning (rather than function) of a phrase, line, or series of lines. Unlike with detail questions, this meaning asked about in inference questions will not be directly stated in the text, which is why inference questions use wordings like â€Å"can be reasonably inferred that† or â€Å"suggests that.† Since there can only be one correct answer, however, the answers to inference questions cannot be subjective or ambiguous. On ACT Reading, there are three main subcategories of inference questions: deduction, speculation, and examination questions. Type 1: Deduction Deduction questions are the simplest type of inference questions, because they only ask you to fill in missing information. In some ways, they are very similar to detail questions, except the paraphrasing that you must do in order to answer them requires you to make a logical deduction. Here's an example of a deduction question: It can reasonably be inferred from the passage that the woman most strongly desires to attain which of the following qualities from dreaming? A. RelaxationB. Self-awarenessC. EntertainmentD. Self-control For this example, I’ll save you the work of having to go through the passage and find the relevant lines (although that’s part of what makes inference questions challenging on the ACT). Here is an excerpt from the opening of the passage with the information you need: The woman never dreams and this makes her intensely miserable. She thinks that by not dreaming she is unaware of things about herself that dreams would surely give her. She doesn’t have the door of dreams that opens every night to question the certain- ties of the day. She stays at the threshold, and the door is always closed, refusing her entrance. My thoughts: So the woman â€Å"never dreams† which makes her â€Å"intensely miserable.† Why is she miserable? Because â€Å"she thinks that by not dreaming she is unaware of things about herself that dreams would surely give her.† So she’s unhappy about not dreaming because she thinks it’s stopping her from gaining awareness about herself (self-awareness). To take a step further, then, self-awareness is something that she wants to gain. The answer to this question is B. There will be a more full walkthrough of an inference question later on in this article – the point of that was to show the itsy bitsy step you have to take beyond what is written to answer inference questions. This is not like high school English literature classes, where you’re encouraged to make any interpretation you can, as long as you can back it up with enough words/rambling; you are really only making a logical extension from things that are directly stated in the passage. Some examples of how these questions have been asked on the ACT (modified for your entertainment): â€Å"It can most reasonably be inferred that the narrator’s discovery that an error has been made in programming the Mars probe is for him a source of:† â€Å"It can reasonably be inferred from the passage that before Harrison’s efforts, other individuals trying to solve the problem of space travel had failed to:† â€Å"The passage suggests that Armstrong’s most important contribution to science was his:† Type 2: Speculation This second subtype of questions ask you to speculate (hence the name) about the meaning of a statement, description, or something else in the passage. Speculation questions can be worded similarly to function questions, but the answer choices and the skills needed to answer the questions differentiate them. Example: In the context of the passage, the statement â€Å"All the guitars are made from certified wood† (lines 34–35) most nearly suggests that Gomes’s workshop: To turn this into a function question, the question would have to change to the following: â€Å"In the context of the passage, what is the function of the statement ‘All guitars are made from certified wood (lines 34-35’)." ...to which the answer would be something like "demonstrate that there is accountability at every level of the instrument making process." Instead, the question as it is currently worded asks "what does [the description] say/what’s the implication or suggested meaning of this statement/what does this emphasize about that other thing?" Here are a few more examples of how this sort of inference question is asked: â€Å"The last paragraph suggests that the author’s main reason for leaving the hospital to visit his patients is to allow him to:† â€Å"The paradox mentioned in the second paragraph (lines 9–14) is best described by which of the following statements?" â€Å"It can most reasonably be inferred from the passage that when the narrator says, â€Å"I didn’t see the red, yellow, and purple clusters that meant flowers to me† (lines 30–31), she is most nearly indicating that:† â€Å"When the narrator says, â€Å"I began to think of the present more than of the future† (lines 80–81), she most likely means that meeting Eugene led her to:† â€Å"It can most reasonably be inferred that for the narrator, the image of the diver bursting through the ocean’s sparkling membrane† (line 52) symbolizes her:† â€Å"By her statements in lines 77–80, the narrator is most nearly asserting that:† Type 3: Examination The wording of examination questions is very close to that of deduction questions, often starting with the phrase "It can reasonably be inferred that..." Rather than asking about specific facts, however, examination questions ask about the internal thoughts, feelings, or motivations of the narrator, author, or someone mentioned in the passage. Every examination question can basically be boiled down to "What would [that person] think about [this thing]?" Examination questions are the most complex type of inference question, because they ask you to get into the head of the author, narrator, character, or other person mentioned in the text. Furthermore, these types of questions often show up on paired passages, asking with the author of one passage would think about something the author of the other passage discussed. See below for some examples: â€Å"It can reasonably be inferred from the passage that the narrator regards her initial discovery of the truth about the reason the Mars probe failed as:† â€Å"It can reasonably be inferred from the passage that within the scientific community the year the passage was published, the small-comet theory was:† â€Å"It can most reasonably be inferred from the passage that regarding NASA, the author feels:† It can reasonably be inferred that after seeing the first man walk on the moon, compared to the narrator of Passage B, the narrator of Passage A felt: 20-Funny-Shocked-Cat-Memes-3 by Sparkle Motion, used under CC BY 2.0. As I believe I've said before, it’s a shame the answers to questions on the ACT cannot be cat pictures. Because that's probably the most concise description of how the narrator of Passage A felt. 5 Fabulous Strategies to Attack ACT Reading Inference Questions Today, I have gathered together for you five top strategies here to help you with inference questions. Some of these strategies are more useful for certain passage approaches (for instance, if you read the pasage thoroughly, you probably don't need to look for context as much as students who skim or start with the question first). Some advice, however, is useful for everyone Look For Context One weird thing that the ACT Reading section likes to do (and the SAT Reading does NOT do) is to ask you to make inferences about things from the passage...without providing any location information. I personally think that this is a pointless exercise, because all it does is give you less time to think because you're scrambling through the passage to even find the information being asked about in the first place. Although I suppose that this is a skill that could come in handy in college/university if you haven't done the reading for the class and are unexpectedly called upon to answer a question about it. In any case, even after you’ve found the thing being asked about in an inference question on ACT Reading (for instance, â€Å"the first woman to command a mission to the International Space Station†), you might find that that sentence may not contain all the information you need to answer the inference question. If you're struggling with an inference question because you need more context, the best places to look are at the sentences directly before and after the phrase, sentence, or lines you're given in the question. In those cases where you need even more context to answer inference questions, like knowing the bigger picture/main point/perspective of the text/author, I find the best strategy is to circle the question and come back to it after you’ve answered relevant big picture questions (such as questions about the paragraph/section the lines in question are in, or even questions about the whole passage). Answer In Your Own Words I believe that this is the most important strategy for answering inference questions correctly. If you can come up with the answer in your own words before you look at the answer choices, you will more easily be able to sidestep the traps the ACT has set for you. Why? Because if you answer the question using your own words, you're far more likely to only include relevant (and accurate) information. Your answer for â€Å"Garrison mentions the impact of a certain kind of meteor in order to illustrate†¦Ã¢â‚¬  will probably not be as elegant as the answer choices, but if you've done your job and only based your answer on the text, you will have a far easier time of picking the right answer (all you have to do is choose the answer choice that best matches your own). Wrong answer choices often have irrelevant information, or contain interpretations that â€Å"seem like they could be true.† This is especially annoying because, as I stated earlier, high school classes train you to see a situation from as many points of view as possible, so your impulse may be to try and prove how each answer COULD be true. No! Don't listen to it! There is only one right answer on the ACT, and even inference questions will not require you to assume much beyond what is written. If you start with your own answer in your own words, it's a lot easier to choose the right answer choice (which has the correct answer, but in the ACT's own words). Nail Down Other ACT Reading Skills As I was completing my analysis of ACT Reading sections by question type, I had this realization: inference questions are often the trickiest type of questions because you need several of the other Reading skills in order to answer them successfully. Take this question: It can reasonably be inferred from the passage that the narrator thinks her hometown has: F. improved significantly over the years.G. made little genuine progress.H. remained about the same as it was years ago.J. a chance of being rebuilt as it used to be. To answer this question correctly, you need... Little Picture skills. You need to figure out where in the passage the narrator indicates she is thinking about her home town and how it has changed. Big Picture skills. You need to be able to scan passage to get a sense of the attitude of the narrator. Even if all you're able to figure out is the general tone of the passage (is it positive or negative towards her hometown? Which answers are positive and which are negative?), you might be able to get rid of some answer choices. hammer time by Seniju, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. Let your will be as the hammer and the nails as the ACT Reading skills you will hammer into the surface of your brain. I don't know what your fingers are in this analogy, though. Answer ACT Reading Questions In The Order That Works For You Something that it can be hard to wrap you mind around is that you don't have to answer questions in the order of they appear on ACT Reading. Going out of order runs you the risk of accidentally skipping questions, but the time you may save from answering questions in a particular order could make up for it (since you could use that extra time to make sure you've answered all the questions and filled out the right answers). I've created three different scenarios of the order in which you could answer questions, depending on how you approach the passage. If you are a quick and thorough reader, and read each passage in full before answering questions, I recommend that you start with big picture questions before moving on to inference and function questions. The advantage of being able to read quickly (and thoroughly) is that you can answer questions about larger amounts of text while they're still fresh, so it makes sense to start out with those questions, rather than getting bogged down in detail with little picture or vocab in context questions. If you read quickly enough to get through the passage and still have plenty of time to answer the questions, going in order is possible, but as someone who reads a book every couple of days (that is, I read quickly), I would still recommend starting with big picture questions and then moving on to inference questions. If your approach to ACT Reading involves reading the questions, then going back to the passage as needed, my advice is the complete opposite: start with little picture and vocab in context questions before moving on to inference questions. The answers to those kinds of detail questions will provide more information about the author and topic being covered, which in turn will provide context that might be useful for answering inference questions. If it turns out that you need "big picture" information to answer a particular inference question, you can always mark that question and come back to it later. If you start out ACT Reading by skimming the passage, then answering what questions you can before going back to the passage, I recommend getting both big and little picture questions out of the way before you move on to inference questions. Unless the phrase, sentence, or lines being asked about in an inference question was/were in the part of the text you read in your skim-through, it's unlikely you would be able to answer it right off the bat, whereas you might have the information you need to answer big picture questions and little picture questions (because you know where those details are likely to be) from skimming. Eliminate Answers The fundamental rule to answering every ACT Reading question is that you must eliminate three wrong answers. While answering the question in your own words first can make eliminating wrong answers easier (since you're looking for answer choices that match the answer you came up with), this is not always the case for inference questions. On occasion, I have found myself frustrated with inference questions because the inference I make from the text is correct, but it's not the information the ACT is looking for. As an example, for the question "It can most reasonably be inferred that the narrator’s discovery that the last of Boston's excessive snow melted on July 14th was to her a source of:" my initial instinct was that this fact was an endless source of jokes for the narrator, when in fact the question was asking about the narrator's feelings (and so none of the answer choices matched my inference, even though it was possibly also correct). So if you are in a situation where you haven't been able to use context and answer the question in your own words in a way that matches up with the answer choices, what do you do? Going through each answer choice might seem daunting at first, since each answer is has multiple facets to it. In actuality, though, complicated answer choices are easier to eliminate, because if any part of the answer choice is false, you can cross it out. Here's an example: Each of the three projects described in the passage reveals: A. the increasing antagonism between the grandfather and grandson.B. the errors the narrator makes and the disapproval they bring from others.C. that such incidents set the stage for the Bryant family traits to emerge.D. that the narrator is determined to avoid being ungrateful, hateful, or overly fastidious. If you can eliminate any part of the answer choice, you can eliminate the whole thing. Take answer A. the increasing antagonism between the grandfather and grandson. Is there antagonism between grandfather and grandson? If not, ELIMINATE (spoiler: there is not) Is that antagonism increasing? If not, ELIMINATE Do the projects show that the antagonism between the grandfather and grandson is increasing? If not, ELIMINATE As you can see, there are many chances for elimination – it should be really hard for an answer to make the cut. For this question, the correct answer, C, passes this test: there are incidents (the three projects) and they do set the stage for Bryant family traits to emerge. Inference Questions: A Walkthrough through Real Questions Before giving you some practice inference questions to work on, I wanted to do a walkthrough of answering an inference question. I'll have way more in depth explanations in this walkthrough than you would have to justify to yourself on the test, because I want to make sure my reasoning is clear, so don't be intimidated by how detailed it gets. My internal thought process is presented in italics. Here's the question: The last paragraph suggests that the author’s main reason for leaving the hospital to visit his patients is to allow him to: A. feel more like a patient than a physician.B. become a more important part of the real world.C. understand his patients’ illnesses better.D. see if being a naturalist is like being a physician. Rephrase the question: change it from â€Å"why does the author leave the hospital† to â€Å"what’s the main thing that leaving the hospital let the author do?† Here is that last paragraph: With this in mind, I have taken off my white coat, deserted, by and large, the hospitals where I have spent the last twenty-five years, to explore my subjects’ lives as they live in the real world, feeling in part like a naturalist, examining rare forms of life; in part like an anthropologist, a neuroanthropologist, in the field- but most of all like a physician, called here and there to make house calls, house calls at the far borders of human experience. Step one: Look for context Luckily, this question gives specific location information (last paragraph), so I don’t have to hunt all through the passage for the information to answer the question. magellan by fPat Murray, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. Monkey and binoculars: not necessary for finding the answers to inference questions, but still adorable. Step two: Answer in my own words So the main thing that leaving the hospital to visit his patients lets the author do is â€Å"explore my subjects’ lives as they live in the real world,† which involves â€Å"feeling in part like a naturalist, examining rare forms of life; in part like an anthropologist, a neuroanthropologist, in the field- but most of all like a physician† Step three: Can I eliminate any answers based on my answer in my own words? The last paragraph suggests that the author’s main reason for leaving the hospital to visit his patients is to allow him to: A. feel more like a patient than a physician. No, because it says he feels â€Å"most of all like a physician.† I can eliminate this straight off the bat! The last paragraph suggests that the author’s main reason for leaving the hospital to visit his patients is to allow him to: B. become a more important part of the real world. Mentions something about the real world in the passage. not sure. Can’t eliminate it just yet. The last paragraph suggests that the author’s main reason for leaving the hospital to visit his patients is to allow him to: C. understand his patients’ illnesses better. Mentions exploring his patients’ lives†¦maybe related to understanding illnesses? Can’t eliminate just yet. D. see if being a naturalist is like being a physician. Does say something about â€Å"feeling in part like a naturalist,† and â€Å"but most of all like a physician,† which I guess could be comparing them? I don’t know. Need to examine the next more closely. Let’s go back to the text again: With this in mind, I have taken off my white coat, Wait, hold up. The first sentence of the paragraph begins, â€Å"With this in mind.† NO no no no this is not how we start paragraphs. Not with an unclear antecedent! But since the author made that choice, I GUESS I need to figure out what the â€Å"this† that he’s keeping in mind is. To the previous paragraph for more context! The study of disease, for the physician, demands the study of identity, the inner worlds that patients, under the spur of illness, create. But the realities of patients, the ways in which they and their brains construct their own worlds, cannot be comprehended wholly from the observation of behavior, from the outside. Aha! So the doctor decided to visit patients at home keeping in mind that â€Å"The study of disease†¦demands the study of identity†¦But the realities of patients†¦cannot be comprehended wholly†¦from the outside.† Does the paragraph make more sense now? With this in mind, I have taken off my white coat, deserted, by and large, the hospitals where I have spent the last twenty-five years, to explore my subjects’ lives as they live in the real world, feeling in part like a naturalist, examining rare forms of life; in part like an anthropologist, a neuroanthropologist, in the field- but most of all like a physician, called here and there to make house calls, house calls at the far borders of human experience. Okay. So the answer to â€Å"what’s the main thing that visiting patients at home allows the author to do† is that it allows him to â€Å"explore my subjects’ lives as they live in the real world† because figuring out what’s wrong with them can’t be done just â€Å"from the outside† Another look at the remaining answers: The last paragraph suggests that the author’s main reason for leaving the hospital to visit his patients is to allow him to: B. become a more important part of the real world. Seems broad. I’m already making the inference that the doctor wants to explore his patients’ lives from the inside to figure out what’s wrong with them because doing it from the outside isn’t enough – taking another leap to having him do it to â€Å"become a more important part of the real world† seems too iffy for the ACT. Tentatively cross this one out. The last paragraph suggests that the author’s main reason for leaving the hospital to visit his patients is to allow him to: C. understand his patients’ illnesses better. Oh. Well. Yes. That is the reason, except instead of â€Å"figure out what’s wrong with his patients† the ACT is way more elegant and went with â€Å"understand his patients’ illnesses better.† I guess I’ll check the last answer, just in case. The last paragraph suggests that the author’s main reason for leaving the hospital to visit his patients is to allow him to: D. see if being a naturalist is like being a physician. Nope, he doesn’t care about being a naturalist! It’s a red herring! The answer must be C. Red herring @ Lowestoft, Suffolk by Tim Parkinson, used under CC BY 2.0. Don't be fooled by red herring answer choices! ACT Reading Practice Questions on Inferences: Your Turn! Now that you've made it through that walkthrough of an inference question, it's time for you to practice on your own! Click on the image below for a larger version of the passage. 1. It is reasonable to infer from the passage that the narrator looks back on the dinner-dances as a time when: F. her parents were in conflict over her mother’s work.G. the entire family was filled with excitement and anticipation.H. she and her father had a much easier relationship with each other.J. her mother and father had renewed hope for the future of the family. 2. When the narrator says, â€Å"I solemnly would nod- the honored recipient of this arcane cultural wisdom† (lines 53–54), she most likely means that: A. she felt intimidated when her father was giving her information that she did not understand.B. her father was honored to be able to share personal information with his daughter.C. when her father put on his tie, she pretended to be honored, even though she thought his comment was silly.D. the information her father was giving her seemed important and made her feel valued. 3. The sentence â€Å"Like an eagle, her words slipped regally down a great distance and struck with awful ease† (lines 75–76) indicates that the narrator: F. was not sure what her mother expected of her.G. recognized that her mother was being demeaned.H. wanted to distance herself from her mother.J. was ill at ease with her position in the family. 4. Based on the last two paragraphs (lines 78–92), which of the following statements indicates what the narrator’s father and mother have in common? F. They both want control of the family finances. G. They are both fighting for their self-respect. H. They both want to teach a lesson to their children. J. They are both angry at the woman who came for the fitting. Answer key (scroll down when ready): 1. G 2. D 3. G 4. G In Conclusion... Inference questions ask you about the meaning of a phrase, sentence, or series of lines in a passage Look for context to help you answer the question Answer the question in your own words before looking at the ACT’s answer choices Nail down other ACT Reading skills to help you answer inference questions Attack questions in an order that makes sense, based on the way you read the passage/your own test-taking style Eliminate 3 wrong answers What’s Next? Want to up your ACT Reading game? Check out more of our ACT Reading Skills articles, including articles on vocab in context, big picture, little picture, function and development, and paired passage questions. For a deeper look at paired passages, also be sure to read about why ACT Reading paired passages are so difficult. Feeling overwhelmed and not sure how to read the passage? Find out the best way to practice ACT Reading and what's actually tested on ACT Reading. Worried about running out of time on ACT Reading? You’re not alone. Read more about how to avoid a time-crunch here! Do you find that breaking down questions by skill type and drilling them really works for you? Consider the signing up for the PrepScholar platform to jumpstart your test prep! Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this Reading lesson, you'll love our program.Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands ofpractice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial:

Friday, February 28, 2020

Reading Response Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 29

Reading Response - Essay Example The documentary shows how movements are using women’s sexuality to advocate for women rights. The documentary relates with other texts, articles and movies that advocate for women rights using women’s sexuality. Arielle Loren article authored in 2011 and titled "is Beyonce the Face of Contemporary Feminism" is a compelling text that raises the urge of the reader to know more about feminism. Loren asserts that, young women, especially those in 20s showcase their different aspects of their womanhood , for example, being sexy without having an identity crisis. From this article, it becomes evident that powerful women could create movements that advocates for gender roles and end of discrimination. I realized that women could use their womanhood to achieve anything in the world. The author means the men would be powerless if the women withdraw certain advantages. One question raised is â€Å"What is the importance of woman’s sexuality in advocating for equal gender rights?† The other question is "When will women start embracing their womanhood and use it to their

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

The effect of Leadership in managing performance Essay

The effect of Leadership in managing performance - Essay Example e sustainable growth and development of the businesses, it is prudent for the organizations to remain extremely alert for all the changing environments. Also, it has to inculcate enough features of dynamism and flexibility so that the processes, both internal as well as external, are efficient as well as effective. This is truer for the ever growing industry of the United Arab Emirates. The environment of the UAE is one of the most dynamics industries as people from all across the globe have transaction with the market. To attain such desired status, one of the major areas upon which the organizations have to work is that of the leadership. The leadership should be strong and succinct. The leader should be able to lead from the front with exemplary performance so that the employees and team gets motivated and spirited. Leadership can be defined as the special traits of an individual that he or she posses and that helps him to motivate and induce his colleagues or subordinates to accomplish tasks (Northouse, â€Å"Leadership: Theory and Practice†). The leadership traits of an individual can take various forms, he can be task oriented or people oriented. A task oriented leader is more of a formal kind and views the task assigned to the team of the supreme importance and takes every measure to get it done. On the other hand, the people oriented leader is more of employee friendly and expects to get the best out of the team leveraging the personal relationship with the team. The management of the performance has been a recent and upcoming concept in the field of human resource management. As the competition within the industries are on constant rise, so it has become very important for the organizations of all types, small, mid – sized, large and even multi - national corporations to quantify the performance of the employees. Till very recently, the quantification of the performance was related only with the external jobs like marketing and sales. But standing